Beyond the Slubs

In the mid-19th century, we know

dupioni silk = slubs = bad

When “is this silk okay” or “can I use dupioni” questions come up in forums and discussion groups, the go-to explanation is about the slubs. In the mid-nineteenth century slubby* silk was considered inferior.

This is true. But, there are a couple more layers to it than that.

There is the dupioni part of it and there is the inferior fabric part of it. Let’s look at the dupioni part first.

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A sample of dupioni. Notice the slubs in the weft threads. When frayed, see the difference between the finer warp threads and the uneven, thicker weft threads.

Dupioni is a plain weave silk. It uses two different types of thread though. In the warp, the threads that go up and down on a loom, the threads are fine with a tight twist. In the weft, the threads that go back and forth on a loom, the threads are loose, not tightly twisted. This weft thread is irregular, uneven and contains the cocoons of the silk caterpillars. Those cocoons are what make a dupioni fabric slubby. Beyond those slubs, those weft threads are also soft and fuzzy. The weave of a dupioni silk unravels much easier than that of a taffeta. The unraveling is a fuzzy one, rather than a dangling long, fine thread of silk.

Why is this important?

wpid-2015-09-24-16.47.27.jpg.jpeg

Three silk samples, two taffetas on the left and one dupioni on the right. See the thread comparison below.

Because, most modern interpreters are shooting for a taffeta, one of the most common silks used in the mid-nineteenth century for women’s clothing. Silk taffeta is also a plain weave fabric. It uses fine, tightly twisted silk threads for both the warp and the weft. Taffeta (that meant for clothing) has a full drape but retains an airiness because it is light weight. Taffeta will also crease sharply when asked and retain shaping. When we compare the two fabrics, dupioni is heavier, it drapes fully but with a bit of cave due to the weight, it also tends to be thicker due to the weft threads being uneven. Dupioni will not hold a crease or particular shaping like taffeta.

In the end, even if a dupioni has little to no slubs, it still retains the unruly weft threads.

Now, on to the inferior silks part.

Inferior silks did exist in the mid-nineteenth century. We wouldn’t hear about them otherwise. So, the questions are – What were inferior silks? and What were actually done with them?

To get a full understanding of inferior silks, there is plenty to read in Google Books.

To stick with the basics… Inferior silk can start with the fiber itself as it comes out of the cocoon. Inferior silk can be so at the spinning stage as well. Shorter fibers and uneven fibers in a strand or in a thread make for an inferior silk since the ideal was fine, even and smooth.  Many manufactures used those inferior fibers and threads for the tram, the filling or thicker cords that make the ribs in ribbed fabrics and ribbons (think grosgrain, bengaline and faile.) Some inferior threads were used for knitting stockings.

In terms of the silk fabrics themselves, textile dictionaries refer to specific fabrics as coarse or rough. While these fabrics did in some cases become materials of fashion late in the century, during the mid-century they were not the ideal as they did not offer the drape and shaping needed for the style of the era. In some domestic guide books there are sections on how to select goods while shopping. I am trying to recall which one it is that goes into silk, discussing how to determine a silk’s quality. As soon as I remember which it is, I will include it. Until then, the existence of the passage tells us inferior, or at least lesser quality silk fabrics did make it into stores. It can be deduced that there was a manufacturing <> economic factor to all of this.

So, in end…. Dupioni is slubby. But, the un-desirableness to the fabric goes beyond the slubs.

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wpid-2015-09-24-16.45.37-1.jpg.jpeg

The dupioni threads are noticeably different, warp on the left, weft on the right

wpid-2015-09-24-16.45.53-1.jpg.jpeg

The taffeta threads are both find and spun.

wpid-2015-09-24-16.46.07-1.jpg.jpeg

Even though this silk, which is a shot silk, has two different color threads in two different thicknesses, all three thread (white, green and yellow) are even, fine and spun with a twist.

*btw – What we call “Slubs” were known as Slugs, Nubs, Nibs and Knots in the nineteenth century.

ADDING: Jessamyn mentioned the difference between between dupioni and shantung in a comment on FB. I thought I should add a link to this modern article on “How to tell the difference between silk dupioni and shantung.” If you have seen my plaid 50s dress with the big sleeves, that is shantung.

Published in: on September 24, 2015 at 4:00 pm  Leave a Comment  

Pinking Service  

ON HOLD

After many inquiries, I am almost ready to offer a pinking service with my antique pinking machines.

Meet the Pinking Machines:

VanDyke: My VanDyke machine is a Columbus Machine. This machine creates VanDyke V cuts with a waved edge along the V.

_20171110_195408FB_IMG_1511619394183FB_IMG_1511619384752

 

Greenie: My Greenie, so named for her distinctive green color, offers a traditional VVV pinked edge. This edge tends to be slightly bigger than modern pinking scissors.IMG_20171110_140422

Wavey Gem: These Gem machines offer a waved pinking. Depending on the fabric, this edge can look like a loose wave or tight wave.

The Process:

  1. I will take a limited number of requests each week/month.
  2. Please contact me by commenting below, emailing me, or through Etsy. (If you comment below, I will pull your email address and email you.)
  3. We will talk about your needs and fabric. I may need you to send me a small piece of your fabric to test on the machine.
  4. If we agree on the project, you will send me your fabric and I will set up a custom pinking listing for you on Etsy.
  5. When the pinking is complete and payment made through Etsy, I will package and send you your pinking.

Important Things to Know:

Please keep in mind these are antique machines. Therefore, they can be a bit temperamental. The cut may not be perfect. Some threads will skip. Some threads will catch. I will do my best to minimalize this and trim threads as needed.

Bias? Stripes? I have found with each machine some fabrics do well, while others do not. Certain machines are happy to cut on the grain in both directions as well as on the bias, while others will not. A Note on Bias – Additional calculations will be necessary for figuring the amount of bias needing to be cut. I do Not sew bias lengths together.

Cost? I am working on figuring out the cost. I will charge by the yard with a base fee. Needle-book pages will be a set fee. Postage will be based on current Priority Mail shipping rates with insurance for anything larger than needle-book pages.

Dies? Yes, I have have several dies. 14 of them actually. We have a “Love <> Hate” relationship. I love them when they sit there and behave themselves. I hate them when they refuse to work for me. Therefore – At this point, I will not be offing a service with the dies.

Strips? I do not sew the strips together. You will receive strips as they are cut, not in one continuous length.

Pieces/Scraps? If you want pieces or scraps pinked, please precut the strips you need.

Fabric Requirements:

  • Silk Must be a crisp taffeta.
    • Silk can Not:
      • have slubs
      • be soft
      • be a loose weave
      • be jacquard
      • have varied threads
      • be embroidered
  • Wools must be a tight weave tropical to medium dress weight – Preferably a plain weave, twill or flannel.
    • Wools can Not:
      • have fulled thickly
      • be coat weight, blanket weight, heavy weight
      • be soft
      • be a loose weave
      • be jacquard
      • have varied threads
      • be embroidered
      • have synthetic stretch
  • I will not cut: Anything with metallic threads, leathers, furs, sheers other than stiff organza, pleathers, any stretch fabrics,
  • Please iron the fabric before sending it.

 Yardage/Measures

I really want to write out a simple equation or combination of two equations for determining the amount of fabric needed for each project. One small problem: Too many words beginning with F. ie: Finished length, fullness ratio, flat cut length.

Step 1 – Figure out how much flat length you need. To do this, measure how much finished length you need. Meaning the pleated, ruched or gathered trim you need. Measure the areas of the bodice and the skirt and the sleeves. Add this up. Please, give yourself some extra. Next, multiply this number by the fullness ration needed for the type of trim you are doing:

  • Single directional or box pleats – Multiply by 3
  • Double box pleats – Multiply by 5
  • Light gathers – Multiply by 2
  • Light ruching – Multiply by 2
  • Fuller gathers – Multiply by 3
  • Fuller ruching – Multiply by 3

Example: A single 2″ wide on the grain row of VanDyke trim in single box pleating around the front and back of the bodice, around the open sleeves and around the skirt.

Bodice 52″ + Sleeves 48″ + Skirt 180″ = 280″ of finished trim

Add an additional 20″ for adjustments = 300″ of finished trim

300″ Finished trim x 3 for box pleats = 900″ of flat cut length

Step 2 – Figure out how much yardage is needed. Basically, we are figuring out how many strips it will take take to make the length and how wide those strips need to be. To do this, take your flat cut length and divide by the width of your fabric in the direction you want me to cut (across or with the warp.) This will give the number of strips needed. To calculate the width of the strips, take your desired finished width and add 1/2″ for the VV or wave edge, 1″ for the VanDyke edge. This is for the amount cut off. **Please keep in mind the width I cut will not be exact exact as these are antique machines. A variance of 1-2mm on each side will happen.*** Multiply this number by the number of strips needed. This is the length of fabric needed.

Example continued: A single 2″ wide on the grain row of Single box pleating around the front and back of the bodice, around the open sleeves and around the skirt. 

900″ of flat cut length  divided by a fabric width of 60″ = 15 strips

2″ + 1″ for VanDyke trim = 3″ wide strips

3″ wide strips x 15 strips = 45″ of fabric

A 60″ by 45″  piece of silk will make 900″ of 2″ wide VanDyke strips to pleat into 300″ of trim.

btw – This is 25 yards.

I will work on easy directions for calculating how much bias you will need. In theory, the same number of square inches are required to make bias as it does to make on the grain strips. But, sometime a little is lost on either corner of the fabric. So, I would just round up. In the example given, I would use a 60″x 51″ or even a 60″x60″ piece of fabric for bias strips.

Pinking Gallery (coming as pinking progresses)

 

 

 

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Machines I am looking for:

 

 

 

 

 

Published in: on March 27, 2018 at 6:17 pm  Comments (4)  

Tools & Trims Workshop 

When I planned the details of my latest Domestic Skills Symposium workshop, a drastic plummet to 20 degrees with frigid wind chill and snow were not on the list. Absolutely not. 
Thankfully, old man winter could not stop the fun and learning, not even with the ice frozen car doors and trunk. 

This year’s workshop took place in the nature center. We totally lucked out with this placement because we had modern heat, bathroms, and tea! 

All set up and ready:*

Tools & Trims focused on recreating fabric trims from the late eighteenth thru the nineteenth century. We started by looking at a slide show of original garments, mostly dresses and a few parasols. Next, attendees were able to try an assortment of pinking dies (which were a little cranky) and four antique pinking machines as well as two types of fluters. We also looked at how to mimic the look of some dies using common pinking scissors/shears. We practiced various ruching and pleating techniques found on originals and in period literature. In the end, all their samples went into handmade sample books. 
Everyone got so into their work, we forgot to stop for lunch until rather late. 

There were lots of busy hands… 

And busy machines 


Follow-up tid-bits:

The slub question – “Beyond the Slubs”

Dolls – Doll posts live on Don’t Paint the Cat. Milli the Milliner, my Peddler Doll, hasher own Facebook page. 

Published in: on November 10, 2017 at 9:36 pm  Comments (1)  

Shawls for Historic Interpretation

For more in-depth information, read Paisley, Plaid, & Purled: Shawls of the Mid-Nineteenth Century

PPandP book cover

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Shawls for Historic Interpretation

Kashmir, Asianic Paisley and Paisley-type Shawls

Paisley family shawl, possibly French

Fibers, weave and size: These shawls should ideally be made of hair brushed from the Kashmir/cashmere goat or from a wool and silk blend. The silk should be the warp or blended into the wool in a small amount. Avoid shawls with a rayon or acetate blended with the wool. Original Kashmirs are very light weight because of the tapestry twill weave. I have yet to be able to compare the weights of original and new. Look for sizes around 64 inches square or 64×128 inches as a double square.

Design: When looking for an Asianic shawl, look for a strong cone motif. The cone motifs should radiate out from a center field of black, white or red. These radiating motives create a star or spoked flower appearance from a distance.  The spokes should be connected with ribbon like borders consisting of small floral motives. By our era a newer shawl would have a smallish center. But, the higher cost of these shawls along with their durability means it would not be unlikely for a grown woman to have a shawl with a larger center from her youth. The outer border can be on two or four sides. This borer should be comprised of smaller designs brought together in the border. Kashmir borders will have more independent blocks of design while French borders will visually entwine each block with it’s neighbor.

Two other design options include the striped shawl and the border shawl.

Where to look: There are some nice shawls coming out of India. Many of these are available on online and via Ebay for various prices. When doing an online search use “Paisley Shawl” or “Cashmere Shawl” or “Antique Shawl” for your key words.

(note: I have read several 1990’s news stories regarding the skinning of goats for their under-coat hair, which is used to make shawls, thus endagering the goats. While shopping be sure to find a merchant you are confidant in.)

Woven shawls Red Wool Shawl

Fibers, weave and size: Wool or wool/silk blends. These should also be 64 inches square or 64 inches by 128 double square. A shawl relatively near these dimensions will look nice. The weave should be a tight plain or twill weave. The shawl can range from light weight to rather heavy if hand-woven.

Design : Look for solids, checks, plaids (preferably symmetrical) stripes and border plaids.

Golden yellow plaid shawl with detailWhere to look: This is a type of shawl you can make yourself. Many Museums offer weaving classes thru-out the year. You can also make a fabric shawl from woven wool lengths. You will need a dress weight to coat weight wool rather than a heavy weight  in a 54 inch to 60 inch width. Plain woven fabric and plaid woven fabrics work well. The yardage can fringed on the end by unravelling the ends by hand. To calculate your yardage, decide if you want a square or double square shawl and how long you wish your fringe to be on the ends. For a square shawl, purchase the width of the fabric plus 6 to 12 inches for fringe. For example: if you want a double square shawl out of 60 inch wide fabric purchase 130 inches for a 120 inch shawl with 5 inch fringe.  (see the article on fringing a shawl)

Printed shawls

Fibers, weave and size: Printed shawls come in wool, cotton and blends of wool, silk and cotton. Ideally, you would find a 64 inch square shawl, but the common 55 inch square shawl is not bad.

Design: Printed shawls vary by region. Look for period motifs and borders.

Where to look:  The Russian Pavlovo Posad company still makes printed shawls in their 19th century designs. There are several sellers listing these on ebay and more on the web. I am still trying to find a direct link to the company. I may have to settle with a regular address and phone number. Use “Pavlovo Shawls” or “Russian Shawls” for your internet search.

Sheer Shawls – Muslin Shawls, Grenadine & Barege

Fibers, weave and size: I still have not found sheer shawls that I like. These were silk, wool or cotton. They frequently had a plain central field and a stripe border creating a plaid motif.

Lawn, Gauze, Voile, Silk Organza & Batiste fabrics can be used to make a sheer shawl. The edges would need to be hand finished with a rolled hem. This isn’t what original shawls have though. You may want to starch the fabric as well. You can add tucks to the border or ribbon to the border or edge.  

Design:: Plain, woven plaids, woven checks, woven border plaids.

Where to look: – Online fabric merchants including Exclusive Silks and Fashion Fabric Club

Silk Shawls

Fibers, weave and size: I have not yet found the ideal silk shawl. Thai Silks has larger white shawls in their scarf section. These are a little smaller than ideal, but may suit your needs.

To make your own shawl, you want a durable silk, in the 64inch square range, no slubs with or without fringing. Look for a taffeta, china or habotai silk. Do not use satin.  I have seen solid color, shot (or changable silk) and patterned silk shawls. A couple of the India, China and Thai merchants sell nice silk shawls. I tend to think play it safe for silk shawls and go for simple. Also, many list as silk but are selling Viscose.

Design:: If you want to embroider your shawl, I highly suggest looking extensively at originals.

Embroidered China Crape

There are some fabulously beautiful embroidered shawls out there… but only a few designs are suitable. I occasionally pick through ebay to see what is out there. It is rare I find something that meets size, design, quality and fiber standards. But it is possible.

**Edit – The previous finds are no longer available. I’ll keep an eye out for more.

Lace Shawls

Sadly, every modern lace shawl I have seen is a synthetic. I may not have found the right maker. I suspect the prices may be quite high.

Crochet and Knitted Shawls

Great thing about these is you can make them your own. There are several patterns available in magazines and guide books. Many of these patterns are available digitally through Accessible Archives and online from various sites.

If you are purchasing a shawl, be sure to ask where the pattern design came from and what fibers the shawl is made out of. The shawl patterns above are worked in wool or silk.

Orenburg Lace Shawls

Fibers, weave and size – These should be 100% wool

Design – See originals

Where to look: – These are available from the same places the Pavlavo shawls are available. But not all are 100% wool. These should be square and very, very fine. The idea is they could fit through a wedding band. Most of the ones I see listed on Ebay don’t look like they have been blocked (set to the square shape.)

 

For more in-depth information, read Paisley, Plaid, & Purled: Shawls of the Mid-Nineteenth Century

PPandP book cover

 
 
 
 
Published in: on January 7, 2016 at 5:00 pm  Comments (3)  

A Hood For Everyday Wear

image

This is the hood I cut for myself in December. I finally got round to quilting and sewing it. As I am hoping these last two weeks were the depth of our cold, I don’t think I’ll keep it.

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It has a cream silk exterior that has applique-esque windowpane padded stripes on it. It is a soft silk with flat slubs. Inside is my favorite cotton lining.  Just love this blue & red print. The batting is a super soft wool.

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https://www.etsy.com/listing/219178299/victorian-style-winter-bonnet-in-quilted

Published in: on January 19, 2015 at 6:58 pm  Leave a Comment  
Tags:

Shawl Basics

For more in-depth information, read Paisley, Plaid, & Purled: Shawls of the Mid-Nineteenth Century

PPandP book cover

—————————————————————————————

Shawls for Historic Interpretation

Kashmir, Asianic Paisley and Paisley-type Shawls

Paisley family shawl, possibly French

Fibers, weave and size: These shawls should ideally be made of hair brushed from the Kashmir/cashmere goat or from a wool and silk blend. The silk should be the warp or blended into the wool in a small amount. Avoid shawls with a rayon or acetate blended with the wool. Original Kashmirs are very light weight because of the tapestry twill weave. I have yet to be able to compare the weights of original and new. Look for sizes around 64 inches square or 64×128 inches as a double square.

Design: When looking for an Asianic shawl, look for a strong cone motif. The cone motifs should radiate out from a center field of black, white or red. These radiating motives create a star or spoked flower appearance from a distance.  The spokes should be connected with ribbon like borders consisting of small floral motives. By our era a newer shawl would have a smallish center. But, the higher cost of these shawls along with their durability means it would not be unlikely for a grown woman to have a shawl with a larger center from her youth. The outer border can be on two or four sides. This borer should be comprised of smaller designs brought together in the border. Kashmir borders will have more independent blocks of design while French borders will visually entwine each block with it’s neighbor.

Two other design options include the striped shawl and the border shawl.

Where to look: There are some nice shawls coming out of India. Many of these are available on online and via Ebay for various prices. When doing an online search use “Paisley Shawl” or “Cashmere Shawl” or “Antique Shawl” for your key words.

(note: I have read several 1990’s news stories regarding the skinning of goats for their under-coat hair, which is used to make shawls, thus endagering the goats. While shopping be sure to find a merchant you are confidant in.)

Woven shawls Red Wool Shawl

Fibers, weave and size: Wool or wool/silk blends. These should also be 64 inches square or 64 inches by 128 double square. A shawl relatively near these dimensions will look nice. The weave should be a tight plain or twill weave. The shawl can range from light weight to rather heavy if hand-woven.

Design : Look for solids, checks, plaids (preferably symmetrical) stripes and border plaids.

Golden yellow plaid shawl with detailWhere to look: This is a type of shawl you can make yourself. Many Museums offer weaving classes thru-out the year. You can also make a fabric shawl from woven wool lengths. You will need a dress weight to coat weight wool rather than a heavy weight  in a 54 inch to 60 inch width. Plain woven fabric and plaid woven fabrics work well. The yardage can fringed on the end by unravelling the ends by hand. To calculate your yardage, decide if you want a square or double square shawl and how long you wish your fringe to be on the ends. For a square shawl, purchase the width of the fabric plus 6 to 12 inches for fringe. For example: if you want a double square shawl out of 60 inch wide fabric purchase 130 inches for a 120 inch shawl with 5 inch fringe.  (see the article on fringing a shawl)

Printed shawls

Fibers, weave and size: Printed shawls come in wool, cotton and blends of wool, silk and cotton. Ideally, you would find a 64 inch square shawl, but the common 55 inch square shawl is not bad.

Design: Printed shawls vary by region. Look for period motifs and borders.

Where to look:  The Russian Pavlovo Posad company still makes printed shawls in their 19th century designs. There are several sellers listing these on ebay and more on the web. I am still trying to find a direct link to the company. I may have to settle with a regular address and phone number. Use “Pavlovo Shawls” or “Russian Shawls” for your internet search.

Sheer Shawls – Muslin Shawls, Grenadine & Barege

Fibers, weave and size: I still have not found sheer shawls that I like. These were silk, wool or cotton. They frequently had a plain central field and a stripe border creating a plaid motif.

Lawn, Gauze, Voile, Silk Organza & Batiste fabrics can be used to make a sheer shawl. The edges would need to be hand finished with a rolled hem. This isn’t what original shawls have though. You may want to starch the fabric as well. You can add tucks to the border or ribbon to the border or edge.  

Design:: Plain, woven plaids, woven checks, woven border plaids.

Where to look: – Online fabric merchants including Exclusive Silks and Fashion Fabric Club

Silk Shawls

Fibers, weave and size: I have not yet found the ideal silk shawl. Thai Silks has larger white shawls in their scarf section. These are a little smaller than ideal, but may suit your needs.

To make your own shawl, you want a durable silk, in the 64inch square range, no slubs with or without fringing. Look for a taffeta, china or habotai silk. Do not use satin.  I have seen solid color, shot (or changable silk) and patterned silk shawls. A couple of the India, China and Thai merchants sell nice silk shawls. I tend to think play it safe for silk shawls and go for simple. Also, many list as silk but are selling Viscose.

Design:: If you want to embroider your shawl, I highly suggest looking extensively at originals.

Embroidered China Crape

There are some fabulously beautiful embroidered shawls out there… but only a few designs are suitable. I occasionally pick through ebay to see what is out there. It is rare I find something that meets size, design, quality and fiber standards. But it is possible.

http://www.qualinsilk.com/servlet/the-85/Silk-Shawl–dsh–Hand/Detail Has a few that I like. These cost in the $180 area.

http://raspberryberet.com/xlmantons.html I was surprised to find there are a couple shawls I like on the flamanco sites. These are in the $200+ for the larger shawls and $169 for the smaller piano shawls.

Lace Shawls

Sadly, every modern lace shawl I have seen is a synthetic. I may not have found the right maker. I suspect the prices may be quite high.

Crochet and Knitted Shawls

Great thing about these is you can make them your own. There are several patterns available in magazines and guide books. Many of these patterns are available digitally through Accessible Archives and online from various sites.

If you are purchasing a shawl, be sure to ask where the pattern design came from and what fibers the shawl is made out of. The shawl patterns above are worked in wool or silk.

Orenburg Lace Shawls

Fibers, weave and size – These should be 100% wool

Design – See originals

Where to look: – These are available from the same places the Pavlavo shawls are available. But not all are 100% wool. These should be square and very, very fine. The idea is they could fit through a wedding band. Most of the ones I see listed on Ebay don’t look like they have been blocked (set to the square shape.)

Sizes & Shapes:

  • Square shawls should be in the range of 55 inches to 70 inches square with 64 inches square being standard.
  • Long shawls are double squares, sometimes called plaids, which should be 55 inches wide by 110 inches long to 70 inches wide by 140 inches long with 64 inches wide by 128 inches long being the most common.
  • Three-quarter shawls are 3/4ths the width and 3/4ths length of a standard double square shawl. A three-quarter shawl would be 48 inches wide by 96 inches long.
  • Scarves are much longer than they are wide. A shawl 3 feet by 9 feet would be considered a scarf. These were more popular earlier in the 19th century.

The exceptions to these standard sizes include lace, knit or crochet shawls.

Next, consider weight. One of the mistakes I observe is the use of wool which is more of a blanket weight than a shawl weight. The weight of fabric is determined in ounces per linear yard. If you want to think of wool weights in terms of modern suit weights, a tropical weight is the lightest and regular is generally the fabric worn for a winter suit.

weights-chart

Paisley family shawl, possibly Scottish

Shawl Terms

Border Pattern Pattern that is predominantly in the border area around the field. This pattern is very visible when worn in a triangle over the shoulders.

Cashmire French word for shawls with the pine pattern both of Oriental and European origin.

Chenille Shawl A shawl of Paisley, Scotland invention with a comprised of tufted silk, wool or cotton. This shawl was briefly fashionable in the 1820s but was un-washable. (Reilly, p.34)

Damask Shawl Reversible pattern with alternating colors on opposite sides made with a different color warp and weft. (Reilly p.34)

Diagonal Shawl Square crepe shawls with two different embroidered designs on opposite triangular halves. (Worth p. 52)

Kashmir
1. Providence in India. 2. Shawl made by weavers in the Kashmir.
Kirking Shawl A white centered shawl given as a wedding gift to be worn to church the first Sunday after the wedding.

Medallions Motive combinations located in corners, ends or centers of a shawl.

Paisley 1. The town of Paisley in Scotland. 2. The shawl with the cone or pine motif made in Paisley. 3. The individual design of a single pine or cone motif. 4. Overall design comprised of multiple pine motives. Green Plaid Wool Shawl

Plaid 1. Rectangular, double square shawl that came into fashion in the 1840s with the crinoline skirt. “A new size of shawl, called the plaid, was produced.”(Reilly, p8.) 2. Tartan based design of alternating warp and weft threads.

Pine motive or Cone motive Basic flower design surrounded by a border in a tear shape . This is the design we have come to identify as the “paisley”. In India it was call “Buta” meaning “flower”. Kashmir designs tend to have a short, simple, plump pine while European designs became more elongated and stylized.

Point Shawl A triangular half shawl; generally a shawl of lace, knit or domestic make. Some shawls are described as single, double or triple point.

Reversible Shawl A woven paisley type shawl with the same design on both sides. Not being made until 1865.

Standard nineteenth century shawl dimensions “The long shawls being more esteemed than the square ones, and considered articles of luxury, it is by no means unusual for dealers to cut the former in two, in order to evade the higher duty, and to have the two halves fine-drawn together afterwards.” (Scientific American, December, 7 1850).

Scarf or Stole Shawl – Primarily ornamental – 9 feet x 20 inches Square Shawl – Up to 6 feet x 6 feet Handkerchief Shawls – 3 feet x 3 feet (called so due to customs fees) Plaid Shawl or Long Shawl or Double Square Shawl – 10 feet x 5 feet Three-quarter Plaid Shawl – 8 feet x 4 feet

Turn-over Shawl A shawl that when folded in a triangle, shows all four finished borders. This is done by attaching 2 borders on the right side and 2 on the wrong side.

Zebra-Stripe Shawl A striped shawl with a floral or paisley motive in the stripes, which was fashionable throughout the 1800s. (Reilly p. 36)

 
 
 
 
 
 
Published in: on July 1, 2009 at 11:29 am  Comments (2)